At the turn of the century Kavala was growing by leaps and bounds. Tobacco exports were at their peak (circa 10,000 tons annually), reaching a value of almost two million pounds sterling. The tobacco warehouses were brimming with seasonal laborers from all over eastern Macedonia.
The Greek population, which constituted the majority of the town's inhabitants, was thriving. Charitable and pro-education societies of men and women, clubs, hospitals, athletic associations, printing presses and Greek schools of every level were founded and prospered in a city that was bursting with life and nationalist hopes. The newspaper "Flag" was the mouthpiece for advocates of a free Macedonia.
With the Greek vice consulate as headquarters, prosperous Kavala took part in the Macedonian Struggle, both by organizing Greek guerrilla bands and by acting as a post for the transport and distribution of military supplies and arms.