The revolution in Macedonia (1821-1830) interrupted the development of education, the level of which remained rather low up until the middle of the century. With the education reforms administered in the second half of the century, the method of mutual instruction was introduced and Greek schools spread rapidly; the first schools for girls appeared along with the first nursery schools.
Nevertheless, despite the revival of education, supported by the libraries of Macedonia (e.g. in Kozani) both in Thessaloniki and in the provinces, the number of students remained comparatively low, the standard of teaching unbalanced, while the funding of the schools depended first and foremost on local factors and private initiative.
A host of schools, institutes for girls, and teaching academies were founded after 1870, as a counterweight to Bulgarian nationalism. The armed Bulgarian activity at the turn of the century broke up this rhythm for it turned against Greek teachers and Greek schools.