The most impressive artistic phenomenon in the Balkans in the last quarter of the 15th century, directly after the Turkish conquest, is the emergence of the so-called "Kastoria workshop". The art of this workshop found no continuers, however, but left a gap in the first half of the 16th century, filled by painters invited to Mount Athos from the urban centres of Crete and other regions, who renewed the art of wall-painting.
In 17th century Macedonia, by contrast, local workshops predominated. These were organised in family teams whose activity also extended to neighbouring areas. The major difference between these and the 16th century painters from Crete and elsewhere lies in their rural origins, which give their art a more popular character.