A series of treaties signed by the Ottoman Empire with European powers had a beneficial effect on the life of the enslaved population. The treaties of Karlowitz (1699), Passarowitz (1718) and Kjutchuk Kainardji (1774) all had a positive effect on the way of life of the Christian subjects of the Ottoman state.
The favourable arrangements regarding trade and commerce contributed to the economic revival of the subject peoples, and this is reflected in the architecture. A large number of churches were now built, and old ones renewed, while large 'archontika' (mansions) were erected in cities that had a strong export trade, such as Kastoria and Siatista.
The Hatt-i-Humayun of 1856 also had a decisive influence on ecclesiastical architecture: against a background of religious freedom and protection for the non-Muslim subjects of the Empire, this charter permitted the erection of churches even where there had previously been none. This led to a frenzy of building activity, mainly in the urban centres.