The spreading of the Second World War onto the Balkans triggered a new phase of troubles in the geographical region of Macedonia. Part of a victorious state in the winter of 1940-41, Greek-Macedonia was invaded by the Germans and Bulgarians in April 1941.
It then came under triple occupation until 1944, suffered enormous damage in retaliation for the vigorous resistance mounted against the conquerors, and finally became one of the main battlefields in the 1946-49 Greek Civil War.
Furthermore, from 1943 onwards, the new Yugoslav leadership under Josip Broz Tito advanced territorial claims on Greek-Macedonia. It was only at the end of that decade that Greece, emerging from the Civil War, managed to overcome the problems posed by Yugoslav ambitions on Greek-Macedonia.