HistoryCivilizationTravellingIn FocusGallery
HistoryModern MacedoniaThe period from 1870 to 1913Political developmentsThe period from 1904 to 1908

The period from 1904 to 1908

The struggle in western Macedonia
The struggle in the marshlands of Yiannitsa

Images on this page

Germanos Karavangelis
Black-and-white photograph with Germanos Karavangelis, Bishop of Kastoria, who promoted the idea of a Greek armed counter-attack in Macedonia, 1904-1908, Athens, National Historical Museum.

PreviousUpNext The struggle in western Macedonia

Germanos Karavangelis
National Historical Museum,

The greater part of the armed Macedonian struggle was waged in the mountains of western Macedonia, the homeland of the most active members of both the Greek Committee and IMRO. In Kastoria, as in other districts of Macedonia, the Slav-speaking population was divided between those who supported the Greek Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarchate and those who sided with the Bulgarian Exarchate.

Yermanos, the metropolitan of Kastoria, was the first to advocate and implement the idea of an armed counter-attack using local Patriarchal chieftains -- who were Greek-, Vlach- and Slav-speakers -- in the belief that IMRO's footing among the Slav-speaking followers of the Patriarchate was not particularly firm.

Pavlos Melas, an officer in the Greek army, can be said to have initiated the influx of volunteer fighters from Greece, since the vast publicity surrounding his death (October 1904) at Statitsa (present village Melas) near Kastoria drew the attention of Greece to the Macedonian problem.

The fighting, however, was particularly burdensome for the farming and stock-breeding communities in the mountains. For four years not only did they have to feed and shelter hundreds of armed men, they also frequently paid with their blood for their allegiance to one or the other camp.

See Also
History - The period from 1870 to 1897
The period from 1897 to 1903
The period from 1908 to 1912
The Second Balkan War (1913)
In Focus - The Macedonian Struggle

Macedonian Heritage
Content courtesy Ekdotike Athenon S.A.