Late 19th cent. picture postcard
After the turmoil caused by the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Greek rebellion in Macedonia (1821-1822), the region's trade regained its rhythm slowly. Not until after 1840 was some improvement noted, and this was interrupted by periods of instability provoked by the freedom fighters in the interior and by poor harvests. During this time, Britain dominated the import trade of cotton and iron, while the position held by France up to then was taken over by Austria-Hungary.
The demand for wheat and cotton in the 1850s and '60s revitalized the big trade fairs and traffic increased at the ports of Thessaloniki and Kavala, where new steamship companies began to operate. The fact that cotton exports from Kavala increased thirty-fold was characteristic of the times.