The clefts and armatoles were the linchpin of revolutionary activity in Macedonia after the War of Independence was won in the south. In the first few decades after the 1821 Revolution two of the most forceful advocates of the idea of Macedonia's immediate liberation were Tsamis Karatasos, son of the Naousa revolutionary and coordinator of all the Macedonian refugees, and general Yiannis Makriyiannis.
Nevertheless, the harassment instigated by the revolutionary societies between 1839 and 1841 had no effect. Longer in duration and intensity but tragic in its consequences was the rebellion led by Tsamis Karatasos once again, in April 1854, during the Crimean War (1853-1856). In 1866, in Halkidiki, yet another attempt at rebellion took place, led by Leonidas Voulgaris.
However, at that time, the big Cretan Revolution (1866-1869) had shifted all the attention of Greek patriots toward the Grete, and so that romantic chieftains' struggle was condemned to end in failure with minimal support from the free Greek state: by June 1869, the Turks had managed to capture Voulgaris and most of his men.