The Greek War of Independence in Macedonia
Although prominent armatoles and prelates from Macedonia (Yeorgakis Olympios; Ioannis Farmakis; Chrysanthos, the metropolitan of Serres) had been initiated prior to 1820 into the activities of the 'Philiki Etaireia', preparations for the revolution were nonetheless inadequate in the region, particularly in western Macedonia.
There, the regular passage of Turkish troops engaged in besieging Ali Pasha in Epirus and the absence in the spring of 1821 of most of the local leaders (they had grouped around Alexandros Ypsilantis in the Danubian principalities) limited the chances of success. The weight of the rebellion fell upon Emmanouil Pappas, an entrepreneur from Serres and a fervent patriot, who was, however, inexperienced in military matters.
The uprising, which finally erupted in May 1821 on Mount Athos, was quenched by a wave of butchery and pillage that same autumn, while harsh penalties were imposed on the towns, especially Thessaloniki.
A second rebellion on Olympos and Vermion in the spring of 1822 met with the same fate, despite the enlistment of several experienced clefts, armatoles and the local notables.