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HistoryByzantine MacedoniaLate Byzantine period (1204-1430)

Late Byzantine period (1204-1430)

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Miniature of a farmer ploughing, 12th century, Monastery of Agios Panteleimon, Mount Athos.

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Mt. Athos, Monastery of Agios Panteleimon, 12th century

After the Byzantine Empire was restored by the Palaeologan dynasty in 1261, widespread grants of economic privileges were made to large landowners, office-holders, and monasteries (a practice begun in the previous period).

Adverse economic conditions brought about the transformation of an agricultural population of freemen into one of villeins, and the increased dependence of the latter upon the proprietors of the land, changes that characterised relationships among the agricultural community in this period.

Continual civil unrest (1321-1354) and incursions (Serbs, Turks) encouraged the abandonment of the countryside by peasants who fled to fortified towns. To economic problems inflated by the flight from the land was added in the mid-14th century a steep decline in the population, a result of the widespread incidence of plague.

See Also
History - Economy (324-565)
Economy (565-867)
Economy (867-1204)

Macedonian Heritage
Content courtesy Ekdotike Athenon S.A.