The period from 148 BC to the time of Augustus was one of the most trying for the province of Macedonia. Pillaging, acts of violence and devastation were the consequences of Roman operations in the region.
Until 84 BC the governors of Macedonia were mainly preoccupied with repelling the various barbarian incursions (of the Skordiskoi, Bessoi, Sintoi, Maedoi, Dentheletai, Dardanians); later, however, they undertook expansionist campaigns against Thracian tribes beyond the province's borders.
Macedonia was the principal theatre of hostilities during the period of the Republic, the seat of the exiled Republican government, and the area for the concentration of Pompey's forces. After the battle of Pharsalos (48 BC) the province came under the authority of Caesar. From 44 to 42 BC Brutus associated it (together with the provinces of Illyria and Greece) to the Republican faction, but after the battle of Philippi it came under Mark Antony's control.
The campaigns of Marcus Licinius Crassus after the naval battle of Aktion (31 BC) completed the establishment of Roman ascendancy in the Haimos Peninsula and laid the foundations for the peaceful period of Octavian Augustus rule as emperor.