Alexander's conquest of the East created an area with a uniform economy extending from the coast of the Ionian Sea to the eastern borders of Persia, and from the Haimos Peninsula to Cyrenaica (the north-western shores of Africa), Egypt and the Persian Gulf.
The Greek element was intensively activated, and took advantage of the new opportunities in trade, manufacture and banking. There was an influx into the Macedonian economy of a large part of the wealth brought back by Alexander's repatriated troops. However, pillaging by the Epirote armies and later by the Gauls severely depleted the economic resources of the country, which entered a period of decline under Antigonos Gonatas.
Gold myrtle wreath
Derveni, second half of 4th century BC
The substance of the Macedonian economy in the Hellenistic years did not differ radically from that of the Classical period: it continued to be based on agriculture and stockbreeding, while iron, copper and other products -- such as timber, resin, pitch, hemp and flax -- were exported. At the same time, secondary and tertiary economic activities developed in the urban centres. Another source of wealth was the country's ports, such as Dion, Pella, Thessalonike, Kassandreia, and Neapolis.