Upon signature of the Peace of Philokrates, which officially ended the 3rd Sacred War, Philip II turned his attention to the northern and eastern borders of his kingdom. Having made of Thrace a Macedonian province, he undertook a campaign against the Scythians in the region of the Istros (Danube). His military victories and the alliances he forged enabled him to subjugate the native peoples.
Plaque depicting a Greek and a Barbarian
Olynthos, first half of 4th century BC
In 339 BC Philip was embroiled in the 4th Sacred War, while the Athenians, on the initiative of Demosthenes, endeavoured to put together an alliance against the Macedonians. The final engagement at Chaironeia in 338 BC resulted in a resounding victory of Philip's forces over the allied armies of the cities of southern Greece.